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声音混响

The famous koan goes: "Two hands clap and there is a sound; what is the sound of one hand?" The same way the sound and its reflections are physically interconnected and constitute the same sonic phenomenon for the listener. After the sound is emitted, there begins a long and multifarious interaction of the dispersing sound waves with the environment. Contribution of naturally emulated reflections cannot be diminished: they are necessary to give a sound a sense of place and reality, and fool the ear into believing in authenticity of the auditory experience.著名的古安说:“两只手鼓掌,有声音;一只手的声音是什么?”声音及其反射在物理上相互连接的相同方式,对听众构成相同的声音现象。发出声音之后,分散的声波开始与环境进行长时间而广泛的相互作用。自然模拟反射的贡献不可减少:它们对于使声音具有真实感和真实感是必不可少的,并且可以使人误以为听觉体验的真实性。

Sound reverb

The sound reverberation zone correctly reproduces the way the sound is reflected from surfaces, forming three main components:声音混响区正确再现了声音从表面反射的方式,形成了三个主要成分:

  • Early reflections早期反思
  • Late reverberation后期混响
  • Echo回声

Besides that, a number of parameters can be changed to alter the type of environment being simulated.除此之外,可以更改许多参数以更改要模拟的环境的类型。

Creating a Sound Reverberation Zone创建声音混响区#

To create a sound reverberation zone via UnigineEditor:要通过UnigineEditor创建声音混响区,请执行以下操作:

  1. In the Menu bar, click Create -> Sound -> Reverberation Zone.在里面菜单栏,单击Create -> Sound -> Reverberation Zone

  2. Place the sound reverberation zone somewhere in the world.将声音混响区放置在世界上的某个地方。

Reverberation Zone Size混响区大小#

The reverberation zone represents a separate acoustic enclosure in the virtual world. It limits the perimeter in which reverberation will be added to the sound. Outside this zone, the sound emitted by sources will not undergo reverberation modification. If two zones overlap, their parameters are interpolated linearly for proper physical simulation of the mixed characteristics.混响区代表虚拟世界中的一个单独的隔音罩。它限制了将混响添加到声音的范围。在此区域之外,声源发出的声音将不会进行混响修改。如果两个区域重叠,则会对它们的参数进行线性插值,以对混合特性进行正确的物理模拟。

The size of the zone (in units) is set along three coordinates axes: X, Y, and Z.沿着三个坐标轴(X,Y和Z)设置区域的大小(以单位为单位)。

Threshold临界点#

For comfortable concentration on the displayed image, sound snapping is strongly undesirable. Threshold enables smooth sound transition when the listener moves from the outside area into the reverberation zone. Its values are set as an offset inside the zone along X, Y, and Z axes relative to the zone perimeter.为了舒适地集中在显示的图像上,强烈不希望出现声音捕捉。当听众从外部区域移到混响区域时,Threshold可使声音平滑过渡。将其值设置为相对于区域周长的区域内沿X,Y和Z轴的偏移量。

Reverberation zone threshold

Reflections感言#

When a sound wave reaches an obstacle, a smaller part of it is absorbed by the material depending on its rigidity and density characteristics. But the most part bounces off and then reaches the listener's ears. It can also continue to the next obstacle to be bounced off for the second time. This sounds are called the first-order and second-order reflections. Though being perceived a split second later than the original sound, they are still interpreted by the brain as one integrated sound because of their similarity and closeness in time. The integrated sound not only seems to be louder, but it may take some tone coloration.当声波到达障碍物时,取决于其刚度和密度特性,声波的一小部分会被材料吸收。但是大部分会反弹,然后到达听众的耳朵。它也可以继续到达第二个反弹的下一个障碍。这种声音称为一阶和二阶反射。尽管它们比原始声音晚了一秒钟,但由于它们在时间上的相似性和紧密性,它们仍被大脑解释为一种整合的声音。集成的声音不仅看起来更响亮,而且可能需要一些音色。

Even in complete darkness, the listener can orient basing on the sound environment cues. Of course, it is not possible to reproduce the exact location geometry, but the character of the reflections gives some indication of the immediate surroundings. For example, a strong and immediate primary reflection tells that the walls are close. The change in tonal coloration indicates the reflective quality of the wall — whether it is highly reflective or somewhat absorptive that mutes reflections.即使在完全黑暗的环境中,听众也可以根据声音环境的提示进行定向。当然,不可能复制出精确的位置几何形状,但是反射的特征给出了周围环境的某种指示。例如,强烈而直接的主反射表明墙壁是封闭的。色调着色的变化表明了墙的反射质量,无论是高反射还是有些吸收都可以使反射静音。

Reflection Gain反射增益#

The overall amount of initial reflections can be adjusted independently from other reverberation parameters. Reflection Gain represents linear gain, corrected by the general reverberation sound Gain parameter, with the following values available:初始反射的总量可以独立于其他混响参数进行调整。反射增益表示通过常规混响声音Gain参数校正的线性增益,并具有以下值:

  • A maximum of 3.16 equals +10 dB for reflections.最大值3.16等于+10分贝进行思考。
  • A minimum of 0 equals -100 dB and results in having no initial reflections at all.最小值0等于-100分贝并导致根本没有任何初始反射。

Reflection Delay反射延迟#

The amount of delay between the arrival time of the direct emitted sound to the first reflection from the source that helps to estimate subconsciously the location size. The corresponding Reflection Delay parameter ranges from 0 to 0.3 seconds.直接发出的声音的到达时间与源的第一次反射之间的延迟量,可帮助您下意识地估计位置大小。相应的Reflection Delay参数的范围是00.3秒。

  • Reducing the value simulates close and small locations.减小该值可模拟较小的位置。
  • Increasing the value means that reflective surfaces are located farther.增大该值意味着反射面位于更远的位置。

Reverberation混响#

With the first and secondary reflections, the path of the sound wave does not end. These reflections originate further reflections that in their turn induce more reflections, until totally losing specularity and becoming inaudible. All these reflections become merged into an overall sonic wash called reverberation. Reflections and reverberation tend to be perceived as one combined and very prolonged sound wave. The reverberation tail provides yet another environmental audio cue depending on its length and loudness. The more reflective the walls are and the larger the room, the longer the reverberation lasts. The more reflective the walls are and the smaller the room, the louder the reverberation is. 通过第一次和次要反射,声波的路径不会结束。这些反射会产生进一步的反射,进而引起更多的反射,直到完全失去镜面反射并变得听不见。所有这些反射被合并为一个整体的声音清洗,称为混响。反射和混响往往被认为是一种结合在一起的声波,并且传播时间很长。混响尾巴根据其长度和响度提供另一种环境音频提示。墙壁反射力越强,房间越大,混响持续的时间就越长。墙壁反射得越多,房间越小,混响就越大。

Reverberation Decay Time混响衰减时间#

The decay time defining the character of the reverberation tail can also be tweaked independently for accurate acoustic simulation. It represents the interval between the onset of late reverberation and the time when its intensity has been reduced by 60 dB. The parameter has the following values:定义混响尾音特征的衰减时间也可以独立调整,以进行精确的声学模拟。它代表了后期混响开始与强度降低60 dB的时间之间的间隔。该参数具有以下值:

  • A minimum of 0.1 seconds is typically appropriate for the small rooms with dead surfaces.最小0.1秒通常适用于具有死表面的小房间。
  • A maximum of 20.0 seconds is typically appropriate for a large room with very live surfaces.通常,最大20.0秒适用于表面非常活跃的大房间。

Decay LF Ratio衰减LF比#

To fine-tune the decay time of low frequencies, the Decay LF Ratio parameter can be used. It is the ratio of low-frequency decay time relative to the time set by Decay Time.要微调低频的衰减时间,可以使用Decay LF Ratio参数。它是低频衰减时间相对于Decay Time设置的时间的比率。

  • For the decay time to be equal at all frequencies, neutral value 1.0 is used.为了使衰减时间在所有频率上均相等,请使用中性值1.0
  • Increasing the value above the neutral one results in having a longer decay time at low frequencies than at medium ones. Reverberation acquires the booming character with long low frequencies tail.将值增加到中性值以上会导致低频处的衰减时间比中频处的衰减时间更长。混响具有低频尾巴很长的隆隆声。
  • Decreasing the value below 1.0 shortens the low frequencies decay time relative to the medium ones. The final reverberation sounds more tinny.将该值减小到1.0以下可缩短低频衰减时间(相对于中频衰减时间)。最终的混响听起来更细腻。

Decay HF Ratio衰减HF比#

Decay HF Ratio also adjusts the spectral quality of the Decay Time parameter. It represents a linear multiplier value for the Decay Time parameter.Decay HF Ratio还可以调整Decay Time参数的频谱质量。它表示Decay Time参数的线性乘数值。

  • For decay time to be equal at all frequencies, neutral value 1.0 is used.为了使衰减时间在所有频率上均相等,请使用中性值1.0
  • Increasing the value above the neutral one results in having a longer decay time at high frequencies than at mid ones. The reverberation is more brilliant with long high frequencies tail.将该值增加到中性值以上会导致高频处的衰减时间比中性处的衰减时间更长。带有长高频尾巴的混响效果更加出色。
  • Decreasing the value below 1.0 shortens the high frequencies decay time relative to the mid ones. The final reverberation sounds more naturally.将该值减小到1.0以下可缩短高频衰减时间(相对于中间衰减时间)。最终的混响听起来更自然。

Late Reverb Gain后期混响增益#

To define the total intensity of the reverberation sound (the averaged square of its amplitude), adjusting the Reverberation Decay is not enough. Late Reverb Gain controls the overall amount of later reverberation relative to the general Gain parameter.要定义混响声音的总强度(幅度的平均平方),仅调整Reverberation Decay是不够的。 Late Reverb Gain控制相对于常规Gain参数的后期混响的总量。

  • A maximum of 10.0 equals +20 dB for the reverberation.最大值10.0等于+20分贝进行混响。
  • A minimum of 0 equals -100 dB and results in having no reverberation at all.最小值0等于-100分贝并导致根本没有混响。

Late Reverb Delay后期混响延迟#

Besides the time of the sounding, the begin time of reverberation relative to the time of the initial reflection (the first of the early reflections) can be set. The Late reverb delay ranges from 0 to 0.1 seconds.除了发声的时间外,还可以设置混响的开始时间(相对于初始反射时间(早期反射的第一个))。后混响延迟范围为00.1秒。

Echo回声#

If the reflector is located on the considerable distance from the sound source, it takes some time for the sound wave to reach the listener. Since perception of a sound usually endures in memory for only 0.1 second, there will be a small time delay between perception of the original sound and perception of the reflected sound. Such discrete perception of the reflected sound wave is called an echo. The following parameters allow the veridical imitation of this phenomenon:如果反射器距离声源的距离很大,则声波需要花费一些时间才能到达听众。由于声音的感知通常只在内存中保留0.1秒,因此在感知原始声音和感知反射声音之间会有很小的时间延迟。这种对反射声波的离散感知称为回声。下列参数可以对这种现象进行垂直模拟:

Echo Depth回声深度#

The Echo Depth parameter modulates a cyclic echo in the reverberation decay, which is especially noticeable with transient or percussive sounds. It is a linear multiplier value that determines how long the echo will persist along the reverberation decay. The larger the value, the more prominent the echo effect is.Echo Depth参数在混响衰减中调制循环回声,这在瞬态或敲击声中尤为明显。它是一个线性乘数值,用于确定回声沿混响衰减的持续时间。值越大,回声效果越显着。

Combined with the Diffusion parameter, echo depth introduces a more diffuse environment, where the echo wash dies more quickly, or a less diffuse one with a large number of echo repetitions. If Diffusion is set to 0 and Echo Depth is set to 1.0, the echo will persist distinctly until the end of the reverberation decay.Diffusion参数结合使用时,回波深度会引入更分散的环境,在该环境中,回波冲刷的死亡速度更快,或者说,回声冲刷的次数较少,而回声重复次数却很多。如果将“扩散”设置为0,并且将“回声深度”设置为1.0,则回声将清晰地持续到混响衰减结束为止。

Echo Time回声时间#

The Echo Time parameter controls the time period for cyclic echo to repeat itself along the reverberation decay. For example, if the time is set to 0.250 seconds, the echo occurs 4 times per second. Therefore, on beating the drum in such reverberation zone, the listener will hear four repetitions of a beat per second. Echo Time参数控制循环回波沿混响衰减重复自身的时间段。例如,如果时间设置为0.250秒,则回声每秒发生4次。因此,在这种混响区中敲打鼓时,听者每秒将听到四次节拍重复。

Gain获得#

To control the maximum amount of reflections and reverberation added to the final sound perceived by the listener, the gain parameter is used. It affects all sound sources placed in the reverberation zone. Gain is a scalar multiplier for the amplitude of the produced reverberation sound.为了控制添加到听众感知到的最终声音中的最大反射和混响量,使用了gain参数。它会影响混响区域中放置的所有声源。 Gain是产生的混响声音幅度的标量乘法器。

  • The Gain value of 1.0 (0 dB) equals the maximum amount of a reflected sound.增益值1.0(0 dB)等于反射声音的最大量。
  • The Gain value of 0 (-100 dB) results in having no reflected sound at all.增益值0(-100 dB)导致根本没有反射声。

Gain at Low Frequencies低频增益#

For further fine-tuning adjustment there is the Gain LF parameter. It is a multiplier allowing to attenuate the reflected sound generated in the zone at low frequencies.要进行进一步的微调,请使用Gain LF参数。它是一个乘法器,可以衰减低频区域中产生的反射声音。

  • If the Gain LF value is set to 1.0 (0 dB), no filter is applied.如果将Gain LF值设置为1.0(0 dB),则不应用任何滤波器。
  • The Gain LF value of 0 (-100 dB) results in having virtually no reflected sound.Gain LF值为0(-100 dB)导致几乎没有反射声。

Gain at High Frequencies高频增益#

The high frequencies are attenuated the same way, as the low ones.高频的衰减方式与低的

Pitch Modulation音高调制#

The pitch modulation effect is not usually encountered in the real life, but it can be used to carry the emotional load and add additional expression to the established sound environment. For example, with its help, the feeling of dizziness or intoxication is aurally rendered, especially when set to extreme together with other parameters values. This effect will be most noticeable when applied to the reverberation zone with sources that have tonal color or pitch.在现实生活中通常不会遇到音高调制效果,但可以将其用于承载情绪负荷并为已建立的声音环境添加其他表达。例如,在其帮助下,特别是当与其他参数值一起设置为极值时,会令人头晕或中毒。当应用到具有音色或音调的声源的混响区时,这种效果将最为明显。

Modulation Time调制时间#

Modulation Time stands for the speed of the vibrato (rate of periodic changes in pitch). The available range is from 0.04 to 4.0 seconds. The default is 0.25 seconds.Modulation Time代表颤音的速度(音调的周期性变化率)。可用范围是0.044.0秒。默认值为0.25秒。

Modulation Depth调制深度#

Modulation Depth is a linear multiplier value that controls the amount of pitch change. Combined with low Diffusion values, mixing of overlapping reflections in the reverberation decay is reduced, and the perceived effect is reinforced. By default, modulation depth is set to 0.Modulation Depth是控制音高变化量的线性乘数值。结合较低的Diffusion值,可以减少混响衰减中重叠反射的混合,并增强感知效果。默认情况下,调制深度设置为0

Room Rolloff房间滚降#

Not only the sound emitted by the source becomes fuzzy and indistinct as the listener withdraws from it. The same is valid for its reflections and reverberations. The Room Rolloff factor defines the rate at which the reflected sound is attenuated with a distance. It is concurrent with the corresponding parameter of the sound source, except being set for the whole reverberation zone.当听众退出时,不仅源发出的声音变得模糊不清。对于其反射和混响也同样有效。 Room Rolloff因子定义反射声音随距离衰减的速率。它与相应的并发范围除了为整个混响区设置以外,声源的声源。

  • By default, the value is set to 0 because the natural rolloff of a reflected sound is automatically simulated for each sound source.默认情况下,该值设置为0,因为会自动为每个声源模拟反射声音的自然衰减。
  • Setting the factor to 1.0 will result in the reflected sound decay by 6 dB every time the distance doubles.将该系数设置为1.0会使距离每增加一倍,反射的声音衰减6 dB。
  • Any other value will be equivalent to scaling factor for the reference source-listener distance.其他任何值都将等于参考源侦听器距离的比例因子。

Air Absorption空气吸收#

Similar to the corresponding parameter of the sound source, the transition of the reflected sound through the specific medium, such as fumes or, on the contrary, dry heated air, can be simulated. The present parameter is applied to the reflected sound in the reverberation zone. The air absorption controls the distant-depending attenuation at high frequencies based on the propagation medium properties. The reason for such filtering is the following: all materials in the sound environment are more efficient at reflecting specific sound frequencies, but in most cases high frequencies tend to be absorbed more readily than low frequencies. As a result, reverberation time of low frequencies turns out to be longer. In very large spaces, the effect of the air absorbing high frequencies may exaggerate this tendency, giving the reverb tail a rolling or thunder-like quality.类似于声源,可以模拟反射声音通过特定介质(例如烟气或相反的干燥热空气)的过渡。当前参数应用于混响区域中的反射声音。空气吸收会根据传播介质的特性来控制高频下的远距离衰减。进行这种过滤的原因如下:声音环境中的所有材料在反射特定声音频率时效率更高,但是在大多数情况下,与低频信号相比,高频信号更容易被吸收。结果,低频的混响时间变得更长。在非常大的空间中,空气吸收高频的影响可能会加剧这种趋势,使混响尾巴具有滚动或类似雷声的音质。

  • The default value of 0.994 (-0.05 dB) per unit approximates normal atmospheric humidity and temperature.每单位的默认值0.994(-0.05 dB)近似于正常的大气湿度和温度。
  • Lower values correspond to a more humid medium.较低的值对应于较潮湿的介质。
  • Higher values correspond to a less absorbent medium.较高的值对应于吸收性较小的介质。

Reverberation Density混响密度#

Density defines the coloration of the late reverberation sound. As the density increases, individual resonances making up the reverb component of the sound are interlaid more tightly.密度定义后期混响声音的颜色。随着密度的增加,构成声音混响成分的各个共鸣会更紧密地插入。

  • The default value of 1.0 provides the highest density of reverberation, which tends to sound more natural on drums and percussion.默认值1.0提供最高的混响密度,在鼓和打击乐器上听起来更自然。
  • Lowering the value can produce coarse-sounding reverberation for percussive sounds while often embellishing non-percussive ones and adding more coloration.降低该值可能会为敲击声产生粗糙的混响,同时经常修饰非敲击声并增加更多的色彩。

Reverberation Diffusion混响扩散#

Closely related to density is diffusion, which determines the rate at which resonances increase in density after the original sound during the reverberation decay. A square room with flat surfaces might exhibit a relatively low diffusion rate compared with a similarly sized room covered in irregularly shaped surfaces, which is one reason for concert halls being built with pillars and ornate alcoves.与密度密切相关的是扩散,它决定了混响衰减后原始声音产生后,共振在密度上增加的速率。与覆盖不规则形状表面的类似大小的房间相比,具有平坦表面的方形房间可能表现出相对较低的扩散率,这是音乐厅建造有柱子和华丽壁co的原因之一。

  • The default 1.0 provides the highest increase in density.默认值1.0提供最高的密度增加。
  • By reducing density, reverberation acquires more granularity in sounding, especially noticeable with percussive sound sources.通过降低密度,混响可以在发声中获得更大的粒度,尤其是在打击乐声源中尤为明显。
  • If set to 0, the reverberation decay sounds like a succession of distinct and individual echoes.如果设置为0,则混响衰减听起来像一连串的独特回声。

See also也可以看看#

  • The SoundReverb class to manage reverberation zones via APISoundReverb类,用于通过API管理混响区域
最新更新: 2021-04-29
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