Programming
Fundamentials
Setting Up Development Environment
UnigineScript
High-Level Systems
C++
C#
UUSL (Unified UNIGINE Shader Language)
File Formats
Rebuilding the Engine and Tools
GUI
Double Precision Coordinates
API
Bounds-Related Classes
Containers
Controls-Related Classes
Core Library
Engine-Related Classes
GUI-Related Classes
Node-Related Classes
Pathfinding-Related Classes
Physics-Related Classes
Plugins-Related Classes
Rendering-Related Classes
Utility Classes

File System

Unigine engine has its own file system module used to access files and folders. It has a few peculiarities you should be aware of when loading resources or organizing the structure of your Unigine-based project.

Data Directory

When Unigine engine is started, it checks for a folder where all resources are stored. This is a data folder specified via the data_path start-up option. By default, it is <UnigineSDK>\data (of course, another folder can be specified).

  • Here, all base Unigine resources (shaders, default textures, material libraries, etc.) are found. Without them, the application cannot be launched.
  • By default, all project resources also need to be stored under this data folder (unless accessed from an external location, as described below).
Notice
The path can be specified relatively to the binary executable or as an absolute path.
To set a data folder (unlike a start-up option, it will be written into te configuration file and will come into effect next time Unigine is launched, unless overridden on the start-up again) use the data_path console command.

External Directories

To extend the file system outside the main data directory, three ways are possible:

To access resources from outside the data directory, use the additional -data_path command-line option:

Shell commands
-data_path "D:/resources/my_project/test_0/" -data_path "D:/resources/my_project/test_1/"

Paths can be both relative or absolute.

Notice
A slash in the end of the path is required. Do not use a backslash to specify a path.
  • Relative to the data directory:
    Source code
    ../../my_project/resources/
  • An absolute path:
    Source code
    D:/resources/my_project/tests/

Also *.ulink files can be used to add a folder (together with all its sub-folders and UNG or ZIP archives, if any) from outside the data directory to the cached file system. In such files, a path to the directory is stored. A link file can be stored anywhere inside data. On the start-up or when filesystem_reload is called to update the list of resources, the engine scans through files, finds a link file and adds a linked directory as if its root is a data folder.

Paths inside *.ulink files can be relative or absolute.

  • Relative to the data directory (a slash in the end is required)
    Source code
    ../../my_project/resources/
  • An absolute path can be specified (a slash in the end is required)
    For example, on Windows:
    Source code
    D:\resources\
    On Linux or Mac OS X:
    Source code
    /username/resources/

Paths

A root data folder allows addressing files with relative or partial paths.

Partial

Partial paths simplify handling of files. If you want to load a file and you are sure that there is only one resource with a given name in the data folder, only a file name can be provided without a path. (If a name is not unique, the first found file with such name is loaded.) It is also possible to provide a sub-path that uniquely specifies a file. For example, to load data/project/image_1.tga, you can use image_1.tga (if a name is unique) or project/image_1.tga.

Relative vs Absolute

When relative paths are used, you can relocate your Unigine-based application or copy it onto another machine, and all resources will be properly loaded. There is no loading speed penalty as well: it is as fast as loading files by an absolute path due to name caching.

Notice
It is possible to use absolute paths to load resources outside data folder, but such project will not be be portable.

As file names are cached, usually the same name and path should be used to load and remove file when accessing from your Unigine script by using engine.filesystem functions:

  • For default resources, functions return full paths relative to the data folder.
  • If you load a file and specify a relative path, use a relative path to delete the resource.
  • If you load a file using an absolute path, use an absolute path to delete the resource.

For example, to delete a loaded resource:

Source code(UnigineScript)
// Deleting a default resource (a library automatically loaded from *.world file)
engine.materials.removeWorldLibrary("project/my_materials_sfx.mat");

// Using a relative path
engine.materials.addWorldLibrary("project/my_materials.mat");
engine.materials.removeWorldLibrary("project/my_materials.mat");

// Using a name only
engine.materials.addWorldLibrary("my_materials.mat");
engine.materials.removeWorldLibrary("my_materials.mat");

// Using an absolute path
engine.materials.addWorldLibrary("D:/Unigine SDK/data/project/my_materials.mat");
engine.materials.removeWorldLibrary("D:/Unigine SDK/data/project/my_materials.mat");
The following code will not work, though it is the same file:
Source code(UnigineScript)
engine.materials.addWorldLibrary("my_materials.mat");
engine.materials.removeWorldLibrary("project/my_materials.mat");

Case Sensitivity

By default, all of the file names inside archives are case sensitive. It is true even for Windows, where unpacked files are case independent. So, if you have errors on file opening, check the file name case first.

You can make the file system case insensitive by using the filesystem_icase console command.

File System Update

Dynamic Scanning vs Pre-Cached

Dynamic scanning allows the engine to cache names of all files within the data folder on the startup; this enables tracking file changes in real-time.

If the dynamic scanning is not necessary or takes too many resources, you can use the pre-cashed file hierarchy that is specified in the .ulist file. When the engine finds this file in a folder during the startup scanning, it stops and uses the list of files specified there.

The .ulist file is generated by using the special script externs/bin/datalist.py that should be run from the data folder.

Notice
You need to re-generate .ulist files in case you modify contents of folders.
If changes to the file system are made not by means of UnigineScript, you may need to call the filesystem_reload console command.

Automatic Resource Reloading

The dynamic scanning of the file system allows automatic resource reloading. For example, if an artist changes a texture or a mesh file on the disk, it will automatically change in the world.

Notice
In case absolute file paths are used, it is not possible to track changes.
If the dynamic scanning is off, file changes are not tracked in real-time, so the world is not updated, but the engine initialization time is drastically reduced.

File Packages

Types

Unigine supports two types of file archives to save space or pack the production version of resources:

  • UNG (a Unigine-native format for archives created with Archiver tool)
    Notice
    The maximum size of the UNG archive is 2 GB.
  • ZIP
Besides saving space, archive also speed up resource loading, as files in an archive are read linearly.

UNG and ZIP archives are loaded automatically if they are found within the data folder. File names are cached just like in case with non-archived files.

Content Access

Archives are completely transparent to the engine. There is no need to explicitly unpack the archives, as their content is automatically handled as not packed. Archived files are addressed as if they are non-archived. For example, if you have data/project/archive.ung and want to address directory/file.txt within it, simply specify the following path: project/archive/directory/file.txt or even file.txt (only if the file name is unique).

Notice
By default, all file names inside archives are case sensitive! (Even for Windows, where unpacked files are case independent.) If you have errors on archived file opening, check the file name case first.

Inside the archive, files can be organized in any way. However, in the root of the archive only files with unique names should be placed. Otherwise, the file search will return incorrect results.

Here is an example of an incorrect file tree for an archive:

  • my_archive.ung
    • my_folder
      • file_2.txt
    • file_1.txt
    • file_2.txt
In this case, there is no problem with file_1.txt, since its name is unique. file_2.txt, on the other hand, will cause problems. Even if you specify a directory in the path name (the full one: my_folder/file_2.txt or a partial one: older/file_2.txt), it does not guarantee that a non-root file will be returned.

The correct archive structure can be specified as follows:

  • my_archive.ung
    • my_folder
      • file_2.txt
    • another_folder
      • file_2.txt
    • file_1.txt
In this case, you can specify directories in the file search and the result will be perfectly correct. For example, full ones: my_folder/file_2.txt, another_folder/file_2.txt or partial ones: ther_folder/file_2.txt.

If there is a name collision between an archived file and a non-archived one, the first matching file is returned. The search is performed in the following order:

  1. Unarchived files
  2. Files in UNG archives
  3. Files in ZIP archives

From Unigine script, archives are handled using engine.filesystem functions as well.

External Packages

It is possible to add UNG and ZIP archives to the cached file system even if they are stored outside the data folder. External packages are added only on the start-up. Use one of the following methods for that:

  • Add archives on the start-up via extern_package CLI option (together with the rest of required ones). Relative and absolute paths can be used.
    Shell commands
    bin\main_x86d.exe -extern_package "../../my_project/archive.ung"
    Several packages:
    Shell commands
    bin\main_x86d.exe -extern_package "../2/core.ung,D:/Unigine/core.ung"
  • Add archives via the extern_package console command (their names will be written into the configuration file and will be loaded next time Unigine is launched, unless overridden on the start-up)
  • Using UnigineScript, via engine.filesystem.loadPackage() function.

Modifiers

File modifiers serve to automatically choose what resources to load when a Unigine project is run on different platforms or with different localizations. Instead of keeping multiple versions of the same project and copying shared data between them, you can add a custom postfix to file or folder names, and load only required resources on demand.

Modifiers are added to file or folder names as a postfix (only one can be specified). Any custom postfix can be used. For example, it could be:

  • File name modifier: file.small.node or texture.eng.dds
  • Folder name modifier: textures.lowres
    Notice
    If a folder has a modifier, files inside of it should not have modifiers. Otherwise, their modifiers will be ignored.

Register necessary modifiers in code via engine.filesystem.addModifier(). When the project is run, resources with the registered modifiers will be automatically loaded. Files without modifiers have the lowest priority (can be used for default resources).

Usage Example

For example, three localization languages are supported in the project: English (by default), German and French. Depending on the language, different splash textures need to be loaded on the start-up.

To organize your resources, name them using the following file modifiers:

  • data
    • splashes
      • splash.png (this would be a default version of the texture. In our case, a texture with an English title)
      • splash.de.png (a German title)
      • splash.fr.png (a French title)

After that, in the code you need to specify what modifier to use via engine.filesystem.addModifier(). This function is called in the system script (unigine.cpp) since a modifier need to be registered before the world and its resources start to be loaded. For example, to load a German splash screen and the low resolution textures interface:

Source code(UnigineScript)
// unigine.cpp

int init() {
	...
	
	// Register modifier
	engine.filesystem.addModifier("de");
	
	// Set a splash texture
	engine.splash.setWorld("textures/splash.png");   // splash.de.png will be automatically used
	...
	
	return 1;
}

Also you can use -extern_define CLI option to pass the language (for example, if a user chooses a language in the launcher).

Shell commands
bin\main_x64d.exe -extern_define "LANG_DE"

And here is how passed defines can be handled in the code.

Source code(UnigineScript)
// unigine.cpp
string lang = "";

int init() {
	...
	
	// Parse EXTERN_DEFINE
	#ifdef LANG_DE
		lang = "de";
	#elif LANG_FR
		lang = "fr";
	#endif
	
	if(lang != "") {
		engine.filesystem.addModifier(lang);
	}
	
	// Set a splash texture: splash.de.png or splash.fr.png will be used if the language is passed
	engine.splash.setWorld("textures/splash.png");	// otherwise, splash.png
	...

	return 1;
}
Last update: 2017-07-03